Help OnLine | Chart Styles
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# Chart Styles

### Video Tutorial

#### Candles

This type of chart is also commonly referred to as Candlestick or Japanese Candlesticks.

They were first used in Japan in the 18th century to predict the trend of rice prices. At the time there were already fixed-term contracts that had the purpose of uniting the needs of those who produced and those who traded.

The inventor, Munehisa Homma, thanks to this method would have earned a fortune to provide terms for technical representations, he would have used war words used in battle. The method arrived in Europe in 1989 thanks to Steve Nison who published various rules in his famous book Japanese Candlestick Charting Techniques. Today it covers the function of the graphical display method most used by traders.

Fonte: Wikipedia

#### OHLC Bars

This type of chart is widely used to illustrate price movements over time, and is named after the prices that make up each bar in the chart: Open, High, Low and Close.

Fonte: Wikipedia

#### Line on Close

It is the simplest type of chart, and consists of a simple line that connects the various closing prices of the periods displayed in the chart.

#### Area

This type of chart is very similar to Line On Close, with the difference that the area between the line connecting the prices and the base of the chart panel is colored with a different color or transparency.

#### Heikin Ashi

Heikin Ashi candles (Japanese: 平均 足, average bar) are a variant of Candlesticks calculated by applying a weighted average to the values under consideration. The formulas are as follows:

• Open = (Open+Close)/2 of previous candle
• High = the higher of High, Open o Close
• Low = the lower of Low, Open o Close
• Close = (Open + High + Low + Close)/4

The synchronization of the body with the real Open and Close price is lost, so they are not reliable for direct valuation. The effect is pronounced on shadows that are more prominent than normal candles. They are usually used as a complement to traditional charts.

Heikin-Ashi charts resemble candlestick charts, but have a more fluid appearance as they plot a range of price movements, rather than plotting each price movement as with candlestick charts. These charts are used by traders and investors to help determine and predict price movements.

Like standard candles, a Heikin-Ashi candle has a body and a line, however, they don’t serve the same purpose as a candlestick chart. The last price of a Heikin-Ashi candle is calculated from the average price of the current bar or time frame (for example, a daily time frame should make each bar represent the price movements of that specific day).

The main purpose of a Heikin-Ashi chart is to show the general price trend (price direction) and the strength of each trend; these are represented by the shadows, which are the lines that extend from the main body of the candle. A series of rising candlesticks with no lower shadows indicates a strong uptrend and vice versa with falling candlesticks without upper shadows.

Fonte: Wikipedia

#### Kagi

The Kagi chart is used to track price changes, and differs from traditional charts like Candlesticks and OHLC in that the Kagi is almost completely independent of time. This feature helps produce a chart design that reduces “background noise”.

Fonte: Wikipedia

#### Point and Figure

Point and Figure charts do not draw the chart as price versus time like Candlesticks charts do for example. In the Point and Figure charts the price is plotted with respect to its direction changes, plotting a column of X when the price rises and a column of O when the price falls.

Fonte: Wikipedia

#### Renko

A Renko chart (Japanese: 練 行 足, romanized: renkōashi, also written 練 り 足, neriashi) is a type of Japanese-origin financial chart used in technical analysis that measures and plots price changes. A Renko chart consists of blocks (煉 瓦, renga, or bricks in English), which according to supporters clearly show the different market trends and increase the signal-to-noise ratio compared to a typical Candlesticks chart.

Fonte: Wikipedia

#### Three-Line Break

The Three Line Break chart has a particular construction: green or red columns are drawn on the chart depending on the directionality and the formation of new highs or new lows of the stock. The only price taken into consideration is the closing price, if the closing is greater than the previous high a new green column will be generated, if it is lower than the previous minimum a new red column will be generated, nothing will be done if there are no new highs or new lows.

#### Candles Volume

The candlevolume chart is a kind of hybrid between the Arms equivolume chart and the candlestick chart. To be tracked, it needs the opening, closing, minimum, maximum and trading volumes data. It has all the characteristics of the classic Candlestick chart with the particularity of being able to inflate in direct relationship with the trading volume; the more interest there is in the stock (in the form of trades) the larger the real body of the candlevolume chart will be.

#### Equi-Volume

The equivolume analysis links together the sources of information on the price range and the volume traded in order to highlight market situations. The graphical construction of the equivolume graph is very particular, the volume data is moved from the base of the graph (where they are found in the bar chart) to be included in the price representation. Let’s look at the construction of a bar chart.

It is a type of chart derived from Equi-Volume, but introduces the design of the closing price, in order to determine the presence or absence of a shadow for each bar. For candles with a Close price higher than the Open price, the upper shadow will be highlighted, while for candles with a Close price lower than the Open price, the lower shadow will be highlighted. The shadows are represented by “empty” areas within the candles. The “fuller” the candles are, the stronger the trend.

#### Footprint

Footprint is the imprint that the volumes give to the market.

By analyzing the actions of buyers and sellers, the trader can identify a direction of the market. Keep in mind that volume analysis is a fairly recent method to view asset charts in fact, it was introduced only 20 years ago and is the only real indicator that has a zero delay in the calculation.

Leggi di più a questo link: Footprint

#### Imbalance

The Imbalance chart is similar to the Footprint one: it also uses the trading volumes to visualize situations of Imbalance, i.e. there is no balance between the volumes of buyers and sellers.

Leggi di più a questo link: Imbalance

#### Chessboard

The Chessboard chart highlights the price levels in which multiple volumes are placed (and not traded) and which define, in real time, therefore, without delays, which are Supports or Resistances. This graph is used in electronics, in medicine, in all fields where it is useful to check “habits”, and is commonly called a heatmap. We will use it for trading and we call it chessboard.

Leggi di più a questo link: Chessboard

#### Market Profile

The Market Profile is an intra-day charting technique (vertical price, horizontal time / activity) devised by J. Peter Steidlmayer, a trader at the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), from about 1959 to 1985. Steidlmayer was looking for a way to determine and evaluate market value as it developed in the daytime period. The concept was to display the price on a vertical axis with respect to time on the horizontal, and the resulting graph is generally bell-shaped: wider at average prices, with decreasing activity and decreasing volume at prices. higher and lower extremes. In this structure Steidlmayer recognized the “normal” Gaussian distribution to which he had been introduced in university statistics.

Fonte: Wikipedia